By V. J. Feron (auth.), Dr Jacob Krüse, Dr. Henk J. M. Verhaar, Dr. W. K. de Raat (eds.)
In 2000 OpdenKamp Registration & Notification geared up a two-day symposium within the Hague, The Netherlands, on `The useful Applicability of Toxicokinetic types within the threat review of Chemicals'. numerous audio system from Europe and the USA have been invited to provide different elements. an enormous diversity of components was once mentioned on the subject of toxicological modeling and hazard evaluation, similar to occupational toxicology and biomonitoring, publicity to natural solvents and crop security items, dose-response relatives in carcinogenicity, regulatory toxicology, estimation of dermal penetration, uptake and disposition of natural chemical compounds in fish, the probabilities of in vitro tools in risk and chance overview, and the extrapolation among animal and human species. according to their shows, the audio system ready complete papers for this symposium ebook, reflecting the cutting-edge of modeling and toxicological danger overview initially of the 3rd millennium.
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Extra resources for The Practical Applicability of Toxicokinetic Models in the Risk Assessment of Chemicals: Proceedings of the Symposium The Practical Applicability of Toxicokinetic Models in the Risk Assessment of Chemicals held in The Hague, The Netherlands, 17–18 Februar
Extrapolation to new situations. Often data exist from volunteer studies carried out at rest and for limited duration. The transition to occupational exposures can easily be done with modelling techniques. Non-linear relationships with exposure. In most cases at the low exposures found in workplaces, toxicokinetics can be considered as linear. However, in some cases non-linear mechanisms come into play at these levels and should be analysed and taken into account. 3 Description of the Pharmacokinetic Models used Pharmacokinetic models of different levels of sophistication can be used in the context of biological monitoring.
In addition, Johanson and Boman (1991) attempted to define the relative importance of the skin to the total absorption of BE vapor in whole-body exposures and concluded that dermal uptake was appreciably higher (-3-fold) than respiratory uptake. This study impacted ongoing efforts to establish exposure guidelines since its conclusions indicated that respiratory protection might not be adequate. Thus, additional research was necessary. In the Johanson and Boman (1991) study, human volunteers were exposed to 50 ppm BE vapor using the following regimen: two hr of mouthonly exposure followed by one hr of no exposure followed by two hr of body only exposure (dressed in shorts only, fresh breathing air supplied by a respirator).
CMA. C. Corley, R. , Bormett, G. A. l. 1994. Physiologically-based pharmacokinetics of 2-butoxyethanol and its major metabolite, 2-butoxyacetic acid, in rats and humans. Taxicol. Appl. Pharmacal. 129, 61 -79. , Masterman, A. M. (1997). Physiologically-based pharmacokinetics and the dermal absorption of 2butoxyethanol vapor by humans. Fund. Appl. Toxicol. 39, 120-130. T. H. (1998). Toxicokinetics of inhaled 2-butoxyethanol and its major metabolite, 2-butoxyacetic acid, in F344 rats and B6C3F1 mice.