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Xie B, Hedberg U, Mecklenburg M, Danielsson B (1993a) Sens Actuators B15–16:141 22. Guilbault GG, Danielsson B, Mandenius CF, Mosbach K (1983) Anal Chem 55:1582 23. Mandenius CF, Buelow L, Danielsson B, Mosbach K (1985) Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 21:135 24. Winquist F, Danielsson B, Malpote J-Y, Larsson M-B (1985) Anal Lett 18:573 25. Kirstein D, Danielsson B, Scheller F, Mosbach K (1989) Biosensors Bioelectronics 8:205 26. Danielsson B, Mosbach K (1979) FEBS Lett 101:47 27. Danielsson B, Rieke R, Mattiasson B, Winquist F, Mosbach K (1981) Appl Biochem Biotechnol 6:207 28.

The tubes are connected with gold capillaries (good heat exchange) with fixed thermistors (type: GB42JM65, 16 kW at 25 °C; Fenwal Electronics, Framingham, MA, USA) and interchangeable columns containing the immobilized enzyme. After an enzymatic conversion, the heated sample flows through the gold capillary and reduces thermistor resistance. ) indicates a voltage. The ET registers about 80% of the heat produced. In order to minimize the effect of mixing enthalpies, a two channel version is obvious: one channel with immobilized biocatalyst, and a second reference channel with an inactive column.

4 Bio-Thermochips Recently, a new ET system was presented which does not require a precise thermostat (Shimohigoshi et al. 1995). The “bio-thermochip” consists of a bead thermistor directly surrounded by an enzyme immobilization support to reduce 63 Thermal Biosensors in Biotechnology the heat loss to the surroundings, to enhance the enzyme loading, and to physically protect the enzyme layer (Fig. 21). Nonspecific temperature changes are obtained via a reference thermistor.

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